Today, Eastern rite Christians have the last day of Holy Week before Easter – the Great Saturday.
The most anticipated event on the eve of the resurrection of the Holy Christ for Christians is the convergence of the sacred fire. The Holy Fire, or as the Holy Light is also called, is the name of the fire used during the Easter ceremony and symbolizes the coming out of the Holy Sepulcher from the true Light, that is to say the resurrection of the Lord.
The tradition has existed since the 4th century, and the first written evidence appeared in the 9th century. The ceremony of the descent of the sacred fire takes place in the Church of the Resurrection of Christ in Jerusalem, better known as the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.
The ceremony itself, according to tradition, takes place as follows: the hierarchies of the church arrive in the temple. They go to a small chapel – Kuvukliya Holy Sepulcher – the place of his immediate burial. Before two priests are allowed to enter – the Patriarch of Jerusalem and the Armenian Archimandrite, Israeli police carefully check the chapel for sources of fire. The hierarchs, before entering the holy of holies, dress in spacious white clothes without a belt. This is due to the fact that when the Holy Land belonged to the Ottoman Empire and the Turks did not believe in such a miracle, suspecting that it was there that the clergy hid matches.
The Patriarch of Jerusalem prays with tears in the Holy Sepulcher with tears, all believers also pray. After a while, the light appears in Kuvukliya, bells begin to ring in the temple. The patriarch goes to the believers and gives the sacred fire. When the fire goes out, it does not leave burns in the first seconds.
After the completion of the ceremony of the descent of the sacred fire, it is delivered to all the Orthodox countries where Easter is celebrated, including in Ukraine.
This year, due to the coronavirus pandemic and therefore the declared quarantine, the ceremony of the descent of the sacred fire will change.
According to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the number of participants in the ceremony will be limited to ten representatives of local churches, and pilgrims will not be allowed at all. However, the whole world will be broadcast on television from the stage, so that the convergence of the sacred fire in Jerusalem can be watched online.
After convergence, representatives of the Greek Orthodox Church will bring sacred fire to the Jaffa Gate in the old city of Jerusalem, from where embassy employees from different countries will bring it in special lamps at Ben Airport Gurion. In order not to violate the quarantine, the delegates of the countries which will fly behind the fire will not be able to leave their plane, but they will be burned by those who receive it at the Jaffa gate. And then they will deliver a sacred fire to their countries.
In addition, the world community is celebrating International Day for Monuments and Sites today. This day was founded by decision of the General Conference of UNESCO (July 1983) on the initiative of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (International Council on Monuments and Sites; ІCOMOS). The activities of this organization are dedicated to the preservation and protection of cultural and historical places around the world. ICOMOS was founded in 1965 after the adoption of the Venice Charter of 1964. The Council assesses the properties proposed by the countries on the UN World Heritage List. In Ukraine, this day is called “Day of Monuments in History and Culture” and was established by the Presidential Decree of August 23, 1999, it is also celebrated every year on April 18. In July 2000, the law on the protection of cultural heritage entered into force, which governs legal, organizational, social and economic relations in the field of the protection of cultural heritage with the aim of preserving it, using heritage objects cultural in public life, protecting the traditional character of the environment for the benefit of the present and future generations. By law, cultural heritage objects located on the territory of Ukraine are protected by the state. Today in Ukraine there are around 1400 towns and villages and over 8000 villages with a precious historical and architectural heritage. In the capital, in particular, there are 675 monuments registered in the state, of which 390 are of national, i.e. national. Two complexes – the Hagia Sophia with the adjacent monastery buildings and the Kiev Pechersk Lavra are classified by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
Events of the day:
On April 18, 1506, in Rome, construction began on St. Peter’s Basilica, which has become one of the largest structures in the Christian world. According to legend, the cathedral is located at the burial place of the apostle Peter. A few hundred years before the start of construction, the first surrounding walls and a small marble monument were built on this site, and in 322 the first basilica was built. It was, in fact, the mausoleum of the Temple of the Apostle. In the 6th century, Saint Gregory the Great built a throne for mass, and in 1120 an altar was built on this throne. At the end of the 15th century. they decided to rebuild the basilica, but over time it was decided to completely demolish the old temple and build a new one. On April 18, 1506, work began. The construction of the temple lasted 120 years, until 1626. During this time, 19 popes changed. The fate of the project itself, carried out and modified by 12 architects, was not easy. The most famous artists were: Donato Bramante, Rafael Santi, Baldazare Peruzzi, Antonio da Sangallo, Michelangelo, Giacomo da Vignola, Giacomo della Porta, Carlo Maderno, Lorenzo Bernini. The area of the cathedral is 15160 square meters, length – 211.5 m, width – 138 and height 132.5 meters. The decoration of the cathedral surprises with an abundance of gold, mosaics, majestic statues of saints, tombstones of the popes and, above all, astonishing creations by Bernini and Michelangelo.
Birthdays of the day:
166 years since the birth of Mykola Sumtsov (1854-1922), Ukrainian folklorist, ethnographer, literary critic and public figure; professors from Kharkov University. Sumtsov comes from an ancient Cossack family from the Kharkov region. Born in St. Petersburg, but since his childhood, he lived in Kharkov. Here he received secondary education, then studied at the Faculty of History and Philology at Kharkov University. After graduating, Sumtsov continued to work at Kharkov University. He defended his thesis, then the master’s thesis. The first attempt to defend doctoral research on the life and career of the polemicist Lazar Baranovich was unsuccessful. As one of the researchers writes, “the faculty accepted it, but the trustee did not allow him to be protected, because there was an unfavorable assessment of the activities of the Moscow governors in Ukraine in the second mid-17th century “. It was only after 5 years that he defended the ethnographic theme “Bread in rites and songs”. Sumtsov’s scientific heritage is extremely vast: it includes works on the history of literature, ethnography, art history, pedagogy, journalism, the history of Ukraine and the history local, and works on the life and work of a number of outstanding Ukrainian scientists and artists. In addition to the scientific activity, the scientist did a great public work: he participated in the creation of a public library, collaborated fruitfully with the magazine “Kievskaya Starina”. Since 1899 Sumtsov – full member of the scientific society. T. Shevchenko. At the end of his life, the scientist began to organize the ethnography department of the Kharkov Research Department on the History of Ukrainian Culture. Sumtsov was the first of Kharkov’s teachers to teach in Ukrainian until the authorities banned it. At different times, various evaluations of Nikolai Fedorovich’s work have been made. Be that as it may, in the history of Ukrainian scientific thought it will remain as it wrote about itself: “My sad Ukrainians have been partly affected by the sad fate of the Ukrainian people. “My shortcomings, my shortcomings, my intentions and my desire have developed to a large extent according to the general political and cultural situation of Ukraine, in particular Slobozhanschina, which is close to me.”
123 years since the birth of Marian Krushelnytsky (1897-1963), Ukrainian actor, director. Student of Vasily Yurchak and Les Kurbas. At the beginning of his career, he played in the theaters of Ternopil and Lviv, then he was artistic director, director and actor of the Berezil theater. In 1952-1963 – actor and director of the Ukrainian Drama Theater in Kiev. Franco. Professor at the Kiev Theater Institute. The famous actor and singer Ivan Rubchak, who knew Marian Krushelnitsky even from Ternopil theater evenings, from which, in fact, Krushelnitsky’s artistic activity began, he recalled: “I remember that a little boy skinny enters the room and asks him to take her to work. We ask, “What do you want to work with?” “An artist,” he replies. “Alright, and who do you want to play to?” The boy courageously looked around and said, “I would like to play with either a grandfather or a rural uncle.” They took the guy to the theater. And soon he had the opportunity to realize his dream. And I’ll tell you, he was a famous grandfather! First class! Before our eyes, Mariantzio (the actors so kindly called Krushelnitsky) was so reincarnated that it was impossible to recognize our recent visitor in this dry and laughing old man. A great talent had a young actor! In Krushelnitsky’s society of actors, nobody else called, from their love, “our Marianzio”. Maryan Mikhailovich had the talent to draw people’s hearts. Always cheerful, cheerful, with a very developed sense of humor, he was everywhere the soul of society. Jokes, jokes, precise comparisons, sometimes sharp, expressions flowed from his lips in a continuous flow. Often in his hands was the violin he loved most. And then sincere melodies, songs, texts to which he himself wrote were heard.
65 years since the death of Albert Einstein (1879-1955), theoretical physicist, one of the founders of modern physics, Nobel Prize (1921). Born in Germany. He has lived and worked in Switzerland, Germany, since 1933 – in the United States. Creator of the theory of relativity. The author of fundamental works on the quantum theory of light: introduced the concept of photon, established the laws of photoelectric effect, the fundamental law of photochemistry – Einstein’s law, created quantum particle statistics . Since 1933, he has mainly worked on cosmology and the creation of a unified field theory. Why he became the creator of the theory of relativity, Einstein, not without humor, explained as follows: “From my point of view, the reason lies in the following. A normal adult is unlikely to face space and time problems. He believes he understood this as a child. On the contrary, I developed intellectually so slowly that, only when I became an adult, I started to think of space and time. It is clear that I have delved into these problems much more deeply than the people who normally developed in childhood. Interestingly, in 1952 Einstein was offered to become president of Israel, but the scientist refused.
According to the materials: ukrinform.ru