That day, in 1930, the premiere of Alexander Dovjenko’s film “Earth”.
“Earth” – the last and most famous film in the trilogy of Alexander Dovjenko – “Zvenigora”, “Arsenal”, “Earth”. This silent black and white image, taken with a single lens, is still considered one of the best in the history of cinema.
After giving the green light to the filming, the party leadership was waiting for a film by Dovjenko which would prove the necessity and the success of collectivization. It seems to be so. According to the scenario, the rural poor take the land from the kulaks and start to cultivate it. For this, the peasants even managed to get a tractor assigned to the village, which was entrusted to the first guy – the main character Vasily. In the final, he dies of bullets from the former owners of the land. That’s the whole story.
From such an unpretentious scenario, Dovjenko took a 1.5 hour photo. Long shots of Ukrainian nature, rural landscapes, apple orchards that bend to fruit, textured faces of the actors in full frame. Of course, the question arose: if everything is so beautiful and good in the Ukrainian village – why then collectivization?
Before the premiere, the film, as it should be, was viewed by 32 commissions. Authorized. On April 8, 1930, in Kiev, “Earth” was released. But nine days later, on April 17, the film was still officially banned – “for naturalism”.
The next day, the director’s persecution in the press began. Subsequently, Gorky criticized the photo, Demian Poor wrote a brochure to Izvestia, after which Dovzhenko turned gray overnight.
However, despite this, Moscow has authorized the sale of the Earth to European distributors. As a result, only in Berlin after the premiere of the film immediately appeared 48 positive reviews. “She is strong and vital,” wrote the English newspaper Manchester Guardian, “from the first image, where the tractors are working, to the final scene.” The American National Committee included “Earth” in the five best foreign films of 1930. The painting was also a great success at the 1932 festival in Venice, where Dovjenko was called Homer in the cinema.
In the Soviet Union, the taboo was removed from the film in 1958, and only after “Earth” was recognized as one of the best films of all time at the Brussels International Exhibition.
Birthdays of the day:
150 years since the birth of Alexander Bezredka (1870-1940), Ukrainian microbiologist. Born in Odessa. He graduated from the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of the University of Novorossiysk (in Odessa), continued his studies at the Faculty of Medicine of the Sorbonne (he was immediately enrolled in 2nd year, without entrance exam). After his studies, he worked as a full-time assistant in the morphological microbiology laboratory of the Institut Pasteur, whose head was the deputy director of the Institute, Ilya Mechnikov. It should be noted that out of the six departments of the Institut Pasteur, two were headed by immigrants from Ukraine. Besides Mechnikov, the department of comparative microbiology was then headed by Nikolai Gamaliya, a resident of Odessa. Alexander Bezredka was Ilya Mechnikov’s favorite pupil. The famous scientist saw only his successor. Consequently, after Mechnikov’s death in 1916, Alexander Bezredka became deputy director of the Institut Pasteur. The main work of the scientist is devoted to the problems of immunity.
138 years since the birth of Dmitry Doroshenko (1882-1951), Ukrainian public and statesman, diplomat, historian, teacher. Born in Vilna, descendant of the famous family of ancient Cossacks, from which two Ukrainian hetmans come: Mikhail Doroshenko and Petro Doroshenko. He studied at the universities of Warsaw, Petersburg, Lviv and Kiev. He was the secretary of Kiev and vice-president of the Enlightenment of Ekaterinoslav, the organizer of the Rural Enlightenment in Ekaterinoslav. He was editor of several Ukrainian magazines. He taught history in the business schools of Ekaterinoslav and Kiev. After February 1917, Dmitry Doroshenko was a member of the Central Rada, regional (provincial) commissioner of Galicia and Bucovina (March – July), then – Chernihiv region (August – November 1917). In May-November 1918, Dmitry Doroshenko was Minister for Foreign Affairs in the Skoropadsky government. Thanks to the enormous efforts and capabilities of Dmitry Ivanovich, this was undoubtedly the most fruitful period of Ukraine’s foreign policy during the entire period of the Ukrainian Revolution (1917-1920). Doroshenko gained recognition of the Ukrainian state in many countries of the time. It has attracted many talented and experienced specialists to diplomatic work; it has successfully established over 100 Ukrainian state diplomatic missions (embassies and consulates) in 22 countries. At the same time, the foreign diplomatic corps in Ukraine at that time was represented by 11 embassies and diplomatic missions, as well as 33 consulates from 20 countries. Doroshenko owes great merit to the preparation of diplomatic documents, a number of treaties with foreign states. With its active participation in July-August 1918, the Brest peace treaty was ratified with the countries of the Fourth Union (with the exception of Austria-Hungary). He also managed to carry out a number of important events which forced General Sulkevich’s government in Crimea (before that he had pursued an anti-Ukrainian policy) to negotiate forms of unification of Ukraine ( August 1918). In October 1918, Doroshenko attempted to enter into negotiations with the diplomatic representatives of the countries of the Entente in Berne. In 1919 he taught at the Ukrainian University of Kamenetz-Podolsk. At the end of the same year, he lived in exile, where he was mainly engaged in scientific and educational work. He has taught the history of Ukraine at the Free University of Ukraine in Vienna, in Prague, in Munich and at the University of Prague, in the Department of Orthodox Theology at the University of Warsaw, etc. One of the founders of the Museum of the Liberation Struggle of Ukraine in Prague. Dmitry Doroshenko is the author of a thousand books on the history of Ukraine, in particular its international relations, as well as on the problems of historiography, studies of sources, culture, literature . His four-volume work “My memories of the recent past (1914-1920)” occupies a prominent place in Ukrainian memories, and the “Essay on the history of Ukraine” in two volumes is the crown of his work as that history specialist. Dead and buried Dmitry Doroshenko in Munich.
117 years since the birth of Boris Tenet (1903-1935), Ukrainian writer. Born in the Donbass. Then he lived in Yekaterinoslav, studied at the local institute of public education, in 1927 he was transferred to Kiev. The literary work began with poetry. It has been published in the magazines “Red Way”, “Dawn”, “New Society”. After the execution in December 1934, Kosynski, Vlizko, Falkivsky wanted to kill themselves, realizing that death was approaching too. “Danger is approaching, and soon they will come for us,” he wrote to his wife. In January 1935, Tenet was arrested and in February the writer left. He was only 32 years old. After Boris Tenet, there were several collections of short stories “Crimean Letters”, “Harmony and the Sheepdoor”, “Tenth Second”, “Weekdays”, “Hate”.
On this day in 1973, in the charming French town of Mougins (Alpes-Maritimes), 9 kilometers from the Mediterranean Sea, Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), one of the most famous artists of the 20th century, died at 92 years old. His name is known even to those who have not seen a single photo of the Spaniard and do not even guess certain periods in the artist’s work – “blue”, “pink” or, for example, “African” , and the term “cubism” for some reason is strongly associated with Malevitch’s Black Square – in short, something terrible and incomprehensible. Picasso was not only an artist, but also a graphic designer, sculptor, ceramist, designer. His work had a huge impact on the development of all the art of the twentieth century. As for Picasso’s paintings, and he wrote more than 20,000 in his lifetime, they are “loved” among thieves – they are most often stolen. For decades, Picasso was the most expensive artist of our time. His paintings are not sold for tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars – the bill here goes to millions. On May 4, 2010, Picasso’s “Nu, feuilles feuilles et bust” went under the hammer at Christie’s auction for $ 106,482,000 and at that time became the most expensive work of art in the world. But already in May 2015, the same “Christie” set a new absolute record – “Algerian women (version O)” won a record of $ 179,365,000. Picasso was Spanish by birth, but spent most of his life in France. The artist has been officially married twice – his first wife was Ukrainian Olga Khokhlova – ballet dancer from the “Russian seasons” Diaghilev; in addition, the artist had many “novels”. During his life, he changed many companions, and each time a new girlfriend was younger than the previous one. The first place for Picasso was painting, art and women in the second. And he never, never sacrificed art for the good of one of them, but on the contrary – as much as he wanted. The children (two born in marriage and three illegitimate) in the artist’s scale of values were closer to the end. Picasso was a brilliant artist and a very difficult person – his self-centeredness went through the roof. As one of his loved ones noted, he treated people “like pins – he hit one with a ball to knock the other over”.
Seven years ago, Margaret Thatcher (1925-2013), British statesman and politician, died. First woman Prime Minister of Great Britain (1979-1990). In 1970-1974 became the only woman member of the cabinet, at the head of the Ministry of Education and Science. In 1975 she led the Conservative Party, in 1979 she was elected Prime Minister for a 5-year term, becoming the first woman in the history of Great Britain (she also became the first Lord of the Treasury and the minister of the civil service of the party which it formed government). In 1983 and 1987, thanks to a rigorous management style and the confidence of the British, she was re-elected Prime Minister of the country. The Iron Lady’s first and last visit to Ukraine took place in June 1990 – she became the first high-ranking foreign politician from a large country to speak at the Verkhovna Rada. Subsequently, in 1990, in the context of heated debates around the proposals to introduce a “per capita fee”, she was forced to resign from the post of leader of the Conservative Party and the post of Prime Minister. Thatcher then decided to leave the British Parliament, remaining a life member of the House of Lords. In March 2002, she published The Art of Government Management: Strategies for a Changing World, which she dedicated to Ronald Reagan.
According to the materials: ukrinform.ru