From Lenin to Khrushchev: Easter “under the guidance” – through the eyes of witnesses at the time



From Lenin to Khrushchev: Easter “under the guidance” - through the eyes of witnesses at the time

The Gulag. Zack-goner, priest: “You know, when such times come, people will have nothing but the name of the Lord. But even that will be enough to save “

Each era has its own memorable date system, looking at which one can get an idea of ​​the era itself and the society of the era. For example, during the reign of Russian Empress Elizabeth Petrovna, there was a holiday “Her Majesty’s Healing Day against Smallpox”. The Ukrainians, deprived of their own state for centuries, were forced to adapt to the customs of the slavers, but they tried to celebrate great religious holidays, such as Christmas and Easter, under all circumstances and under all regimes and leaders. For centuries, these festivals have remained “holy days” belonging to the realm of the eternal and the indestructible. However, people have not always had the opportunity to adhere to established rituals: take baskets and go to church, then sit with their families at the generous Easter table and chat after the night service Easter.

So what was it like – Easter in the 20th century?

Twenty years: they still serve in churches, but atheists are endemic

Festive traditions were revered as part of the UPR: Good Friday, Big Saturday, Easter itself, as well as two days of Bright Week – Monday and Tuesday – were inactive. With the approval of Soviet power on Ukrainian soil, new holidays appeared on the calendar, but all religious holidays were called “special days of rest”. For religion – any religion – there is no longer any place in the value system of the Bolshevik ideology.

From Lenin to Khrushchev: Easter “under the guidance” - through the eyes of witnesses at the time

Before the destruction, everything of value came from the temples

These were difficult times for the Church and for believers, the times of militant atheism and repression, when the authorities tried to completely control not only every step of the citizen, but also every word he said . Religious buildings were destroyed or transformed into warehouses, vegetable bases and priests were arrested. Some were slaughtered, others sent into exile, from which few returned alive. However, until the late 1920s it was still possible to go to church – later, with the start of the era of great terror, such an opportunity almost disappeared.

Finally, religious holidays were “removed” from the Soviet calendar in 1929. A fatal blow was then inflicted on the independent Ukrainian Orthodox Church – UAOC.

From Lenin to Khrushchev: Easter “under the guidance” - through the eyes of witnesses at the time

In the photo: Victor Petrov and Nikolai Zerov are standing; seated Oswald Burgardt (Yuri Klen), Pavel Filipovich, Felix Yakubovsky and Maxim Rylsky

The neoclassical poet Yuri Klen left a memory of Easter night 1922 in Sofia from Kiev (it was April 16): “The surroundings are covered with anti-church demonstrations, and silence reigns in the cathedral courtyard. The wave of this noise seems to break against the rock of stone and fly away helpless … Oh, how good it is sometimes – to separate yourself from the world where demons and buffoons reigned in order to feel God in quiet solitude of your soul … “

Sophia Cathedral (the main temple) from July 1919 until the early 1930s belonged to the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church. The services were conducted in the Ukrainian language, almost all of the Ukrainian intelligentsia then gathered around the church.

Easter 1925 fell on April 19. Saturday before the holiday was proclaimed by the authorities a day off. It was the era of NEP. All private stores were closed – the police went to check. Only state stores were allowed to trade – Larka and Sorabkop (Soviet workers’ cooperative).

From Lenin to Khrushchev: Easter “under the guidance” - through the eyes of witnesses at the time

“Sorabkop” at the corner of Khreshchatyk and the current street. Bohdan Khmelnitsky

People had nowhere to go, so I had to buy all the expired products from Soviet stores. A contemporary wrote about Easter in 1925: “The churches are always full and propaganda sometimes ended in a fight … The first day of Easter showed that communism suffered the same defeat as Christianity has suffered since at minus a thousand years. The city is full of drunks, people play in the sun, a couple holding hands happily, celebrating the spring holidays. Bacchus and Venus are stronger than the Byzantine Sabaoth and the communist god … “

From Lenin to Khrushchev: Easter “under the guidance” - through the eyes of witnesses at the time

Meeting of artists from Kharkov and Kiev. Kiev, 1923. Front row: Maxim Rylsky, Yuri Mezhenko, Nikolay Khvylovy, Mike Johansen, Grigory Mikhailov, Mikhail Verikovsky. Second row: Natalia Romanovich, Mikhail Mogilyansky, Vasily Ellan-Goluboy, Sergey Pilipenko, Pavel Tychina, Pavel Filippovich. In third place are: Dmitry Zagul, Nikolai Zerov, Mikhail Dry-Khmara, Grigory Kosynka, Vladimir Sosyura, Todos Osmachka, Vladimir Koryak, Mikhail Ivchenko

In 1926, the poet and literary critic Mikhail Dry-Khmara wrote in his journal: “April 29 is Maundy Thursday. I was in Sofia and I met Kosynka and Ivchenko there. During the service, they talked about Yenukidze and his Ukrainian-Ukrainian speech. We can say that Ukraine then started its own holy week: the first large-scale political processes and arrests were underway, and before the process of the so-called “Union for the Liberation of Ukraine”, it remained four years. The Chekists will shoot the writer Grigory Kosinka in Kiev in 1934, Mikhail Ivchenko will be forced to hide and die of coal in 1939, Avel Yenukidze, a Soviet politician, friend of Stalin, will be shot in Moscow in 1937, and Mikhail Dry -Khmar himself will die of the death of a martyr of exhaustion in 1939 in Kolyma.

From Lenin to Khrushchev: Easter “under the guidance” - through the eyes of witnesses at the time

Court in the case of the Union for the Liberation of Ukraine. Sergey Efremov – the far left

Academician Sergei Efremov of May 2, 1926 writes in his journal: “I can say about myself after this uncle:” Every time I come to church, all Easter will be blessed. “It was tonight, when” Easter is celebrated in the church, listening to strange songs – and before my eyes stood the miserable church of Palchik, the voice of my parents from the altar rang and around were faces dear ones half forgotten by people then familiar (probably none of them were already alive) and I myself am a little boy, proud to have “stagnated in the church”, even if my eyes were glued at the end of the service of a sweet nap. How long ago! .. And how, in fact, little has changed in the mood of these people who stood beside me today at the “Church! Especially if we take into account the fact that we have survived the” social revolution “, and that Christianity is now in a position of persecuted religion … The religious foundation of the human soul is tenacious …”

In 1929, Easter fell on May 5. The same Efremov writes: “There are posters in the streets:” Christian and Jewish Passover – the feast of exploiters “. When did the founders of the” workers’ religion think of these Galilean fishermen who were among the ” Yes, and it doesn’t matter … They are preparing for Easter: they will equip anti-religious carnivals, remove the bells from the bells, make fun of Christianity in all ways – in the name of ‘a religion of hatred and enmity! .. “

From Lenin to Khrushchev: Easter “under the guidance” - through the eyes of witnesses at the time

And this is proof, so to speak, “on the other hand”. Extract from the report to the secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine (B) U Stanislav Kosior from the vice-president of the state political administration (GPU) Karl Carlson on the anti-religious carnival for Easter in 1929 in Kiev: “Participants in the Oktyabrsky District Protesters Column fired several rockets at believers during a procession near Sretensky Church. Some believers have been burned. Missiles were also fired at autocephalous praying at Saint Sophia Cathedral. From the Ukrmet balcony, a searchlight was sent to the altar of Hagia Sophia, which blinded the clergy and disrupted service. “

From Lenin to Khrushchev: Easter “under the guidance” - through the eyes of witnesses at the time

Sretensky Church

The Sretenskaya Church – a marvelous work of the architect Vladimir Nikolaev – stood on Bolshaya Zhytomyrskaya 33. In the 1930s it was destroyed. The same fate went to Mikhailovsky the golden dome … They also wanted to destroy the Saint Sophia Cathedral, but thanks to the attentive inhabitants, the museum employees, the scientists, they managed to defend the old sanctuary. But almost all the defenders of the cathedral were repressed, as were the priests.

Thirty years: Easter

But the worst Easter was during the Holodomor of 1932-1933, when the children were swollen with hunger, when adults fell and died in the midst of villages and on the streets of Ukrainian cities, and there was nobody to bury the dead. Apparently it was the darkest Easter in Ukrainian history in the whole of the 20th century … In the aggressive anti-religious campaign, in the repression of the priesthood, the inhuman torments of the peasants, driven by Stalin beyond survival physical, have been added. Voices of witnesses:

From Lenin to Khrushchev: Easter “under the guidance” - through the eyes of witnesses at the time

Here is what the peasant Nestor Belous of the village of Lebyazhye of the district of Pechenegsky (now Chuguevsky) of the Kharkov region writes in his secret diary of April 20, 1930: “Easter. That day they were having fun and rejoicing, but now everyone, as if sorrow strangled everyone, is vague, there is nothing to say, if someone killed the pigs, then no more than 3-4 of them are in the whole village. Easter was lively and lively overall, with the exception of some semi-whites, and even very little. “At night, near Easter, a carousel was installed in the garden near the church, for the purpose of anti-religion, but no one went there, except for some members of the Komsomol.”

In 1931: “Easter. They talked about Easter and ate 1 testicle, but there was nothing else, because the five-year plan destroyed everything, it was his own meat, it was possible to buy, and now you cannot find meat and lard with fire. From 11 to 12 evening, it snowed, so Easter was in the snow. (Entry of Nestor Belous of April 12, 1931).

From Lenin to Khrushchev: Easter “under the guidance” - through the eyes of witnesses at the time

About Easter in 1932, Dmitry Zavoloka, a party leader, head of the culture and propaganda department of the party committee of the Leninsky district of Kiev, left a secret diary: “They talked for most of the evening . Me and mom. I came to buy bread for the “holidays”. They cannot break the habit of their old traditions. Even the present material need, almost hunger, miserably limited life, has not destroyed the desire to celebrate the “holidays”. This is where the conservative and fanatic tradition is found … During the whole revolutionary period, the mother never had a mood as pessimistic and helpless as today. According to her, “the peasantry has never lived like this before. People have never suffered as much as they do today. Dmitry Zavoloka was born in Boryspil, it was from there that his mother came to see him at that time, a prosperous member of the city party, to buy bread for Easter.

From Lenin to Khrushchev: Easter “under the guidance” - through the eyes of witnesses at the time

The author of this photo – Nikolai Bokan – was found guilty of this and his other photographs, who died in 1942 in a camp

1933 Easter falls on April 16. Nestor Belous writes: “Easter. I was at work in an artel …. there are no more people in the village and people were having fun … but today, everywhere, it is discouragement and hunger. They spoke to skinny borscht, some fried potatoes and milk porridge, gave Kuma Manka milk. Kalikhoch Pilyup took the dead meat from a horse transfused with phenol in the spring and brought it home. The next day, Monday of Bright Week, the peasant wrote: “Today … 11 souls of starving people”.

From Lenin to Khrushchev: Easter “under the guidance” - through the eyes of witnesses at the time

Journal pages reprinted in the case of Alexey Nalivaiko

At Easter 1934, a 23-year-old teacher, Aleksey Nalyvaiko, from the village of Fernat (now Karmalyukovka in the Balti district of the Odessa region), which happened on April 8, wrote in his journal: “Yesterday,” ordered Zav. to be on the village council, they say that an anti-Easter campaign will be waged … You can’t go … I went … 2-3 other “party members” gathered, ” members of the Komsomol “- an extremely limited people. If they can be considered for people. And how helpless, miserable they were … ”It should be noted that one of the moral authorities of the young rural teacher was the academician Sergei Efremov, whom he actually admits in his journal. At that time, Efremov had been in the center of Vladimir for several years, where he died in 1939. Alexei Nalivaiko did not avoid repressions, as did all the other authors of these notes – they served as proof of their ” anti-Soviet activities “.

History of the true faith: Easter in the gulag

Have religious festivals been celebrated in prisons and camps? In numerous memoirs of political prisoners and convicts, we find many references to the celebration of Christmas and Easter, to the celebration of the liturgy in an overcrowded prison cell, in a prison car, in a forest, or even where, despite prohibitions and threats of severe penalties.

From Lenin to Khrushchev: Easter “under the guidance” - through the eyes of witnesses at the time

Since the mid-1950s prisoners transferred from camps to the colony have had the opportunity to celebrate Easter and other holidays. Pictured: Easter in a special settlement in the city of Inta (Republic of Komi), 1956 Easter blesses the Father. Ivan Lopatchak (photo from the collection of Lubomir Polyuha)

Of course, it all depended on the general political “climate” of the country. Есть свидетельства, что в 20-х годах ХХ века в тюрьмах можно было еще причаститься, а уже в-л о о о 30 30 30 Более того, изменилось “качество” самих заключенных – их культурный и образовательный уровень. Прошло каких-то десять агрессивно “безбожницких” лет, и уже мало кто знал наизусть даже и гливил Для подавляющего большинства религия перестала быть чем-то важным и нужным, но некоторым она существенно помогала жить, вернее, как пишет Варлам Шаламов “… цепляться за жизнь, которую так настойчиво и упорно у нас отнимали”. На зоне нужно было во что-то верить, чтобы не сойти с ума, не наложить на себя руки, или просто не “задуматься и уплыть” как говорили блатные, то есть, не умереть от безнадежности и грусти … Смягчения лагерного режима произошло лишь после мощных восстаний, прокатившихся по лагерям ГУЛАГа после смерти Сталина.

От Ленина до Хрущева: Пасха “под советами” - глазами свидетелей эпохи

Лев Копепєв

Киевлянин Лев Копелев – литературовед, критик и диссидент, был арестован в 1945 году, в книге мемуаров “Хранить вечно” вспоминает, как он, атеист, стал свидетелем тайного празднования Пасхи 1946 года в Унженском исправительно-трудовом лагере “Койки сдвинуты к стенам. В углу тумбочка, застланная цветным домашним покрывалом. На ней икона и несколько самодельных свечей. Батюшка с жестяным крестом в облачении, составленном из чистых простынь, кадил душистой смолкой. … В небольшой комнате полутемно, мерцают тоненькие свечки. Батюшка служит тихим, глуховатым, подрагивающим стариковским голосом. Несколько женщин в белых платочках запевают тоже негромко, но истово светлыми голосами. Хор подхватывает дружно, хотя все стараются, чтоб негромко… Мы здесь едва знаем или вовсе не зне. Иных и не узнать в сумраке. Наверное, не только мы с Сергеем неверующие. Но поем все согласно: Христос воскресе из мертвых… ”.

А это воспоминания о лагерной Пасхе 1954 года украинки Стефании Чабан-Гаваль. Ее арестовали в 1944 году за участие в УПА. Восемнадцатилетней девушкой она попала в сталинских лагерей, впоследствии была активной учасоногово

От Ленина до Хрущева: Пасха “под советами” - глазами свидетелей эпохи

Женщины 6-й зоны НорЛага – участницы восстания, 1954 г.

«Приближается Пасха. А о о е……… ш ш ш ш з ш ш ш ш ш ш ш ш з ш ш ш ш з з ш ш ш з з ш з ш з ш ш ш ш ш Из хлеба также придумали “пасхи”. Пасхальные яйца, сделанные из глины, покрасили краской, которой пишут лозунги. Принесли зеленых веток, кто чем имел понакрывали столы. Всю эту “красоту” расставили на столах, украсили зеленью ветвей, и стало поистине праздничное на н н Все одеты в то, кто что имел дома, но все в чистом. В бараке убрано. Собираются на Богослужение ”. А еще Стефания замечает, что “… все годы до 1953 года. этот контингент (так нас там называли) придерживался своих отеческих традиций, строго запрещенных лагерным режимом, преследуемых с наказаниями БУРом, штрафными пайками, а все равно те упрямые “бандеровки” своего не забывали даже в самых свирепых условиях … “В лагерях не редкостью были общие празднования Пасхи, когда украинцы “кооперировались” с литовцами, поляками, но это стало возмонно.

От Ленина до Хрущева: Пасха “под советами” - глазами свидетелей эпохи

Православный богослов и философ Сергей Фудель, многолетний узник сталинских лагерей, в воспоминаниях пишет, что однажды одной холодной лагерной весной накануне Пасхи, среди болот и тайги, в минуту тяжелой тоски, сжимавшей его сердце, другой заключенный-доходяга, священник, сказал ему ” Знаешь, когда наступят такие времена, что кроме имени Господня у людей вообще ничего не будет. Но даже и этого будет достаточно для спасения… »

Послевоенная Пасха: священники “с регистрацией”

В конце 1943 года Сталин решил изменить политику в отношении РПЦ, сочтя целесообразнее не абсолат ы з з з з Церковь д в « Впрочем, это разрешение, пусть и сомнительного качества, все же дал толчок определенному религион По свидетельствам современников, уцелевшие церкви и монастыри в послевоенное десятилетие были переполнены.

От Ленина до Хрущева: Пасха «под советами» – глазами свидетелей эпохи

Вот что пишет в своих заметках епископ Варнава (Беляев) о весне 1950 года в Киеве: «Лазарева суббота. Сегодня за всенощной (под Вербное Воскресенье) люд стоял во Владимирском соборе и вокруг него, не только на площади, но и на проезде бульвара Шевченко. Даже автомобильному движению мешали. В храм было не проскользнуть. Все с большими пучками вербы и цветов. Отнюдь не «бабушки»… Целые семьи: старшие – деды и отцы, бабушки и матери, молодежь обоих полов и дети всех возрастных категорий. Сколько женщин, столько и мужчин. Компания молодых людей стояла, разговаривала: «А что будет в это время через неделю! – сказал один из них. – В прошлом году здесь было море народа».

Запись от 6 апреля 1950: «Великий Четверг – Двенадцать Евангелий (под Благовещение Пресвятой Богородицы). Та же картина. Люди стояли на улице под храмом. Со свечами. Мужчины разного возраста… И военные, и рабочие, и интеллигенты в шляпах, и в кепках, и другие». Епископ Варнава (Беляев) после длительного заключения в сталинских лагерях жил в Киеве, жил в хибарке на Демеевке, был известен как «дядя Коля» – местный юродивый. Ходил в местную Свято-Вознесенскую церковь – кстати, одно из немногих культовых сооружений, которое ни разу не закрывалось за всю историю своего существования – таких в Киеве почти не осталось. Снова становиться священником не хотел, ведь тогда надо было бы заключать определенную сделку в МГБ. Еще 1 октября 1929 года Народный комиссариат внутренних дел СССР издал постановление, согласно которому вводилась обязательная регистрация духовенства. С тех пор и до самого конца существования СССР священник имел право совершать богослужения только при наличии у него справки о регистрации в соответствующих государственных органах.

90-е: Рождество и Пасха словно реабилитированы политзаключенные, вернулись в календарь в 1991 году

После смерти Сталина наступила так называемая хрущевская оттепель, но, как известно, легче не стало ни Церкви, ни верующим: в 1961 году власти закрыли Киево-Печерскую Лавру, неоднократно делались попытки закрыть Почаевскую Лавру, но, благодаря беспрецедентной поддержке местных жителей и широкой огласке – местные монахи писали письма и в ООН, и даже королеве Великобритании Елизавете II – ее – лавру – все же не закрыли. Немало священнослужителей подверглись притеснениям и преследованиям. К репрессиям была подключена и карательная психиатрия – многих монахов отправляли уже не в тюрьмы, а в психушки. Одного киевского подвижника в 1961 году спросили о духе сталинизма, на что монах лаконично ответил: «Не верьте – он жив…»

От Ленина до Хрущева: Пасха «под советами» – глазами свидетелей эпохи

Киевская лавра в начале 60-х гг.

При Брежневе, хоть и не было кровавых репрессий, но существенных положительных изменений в религиозной сфере не наблюдалось. Впрочем, несмотря на все запреты, ловушки и облавы, истинная христианская вера и традиция оказалась неистребимой. Передавалась она и через уцелевших священников, монахов и монахинь – как православных, так и греко-католических, и через неприметных бабушек, и через религиозный самиздат.

А в конце 80-х годов религиозное возрождение приобрело мощный и необратимый характер, а главные христианские праздники – Рождество и Пасха, точно реабилитированные политзаключенные, вернулись в наш календарь в 1991 году.

Светлана Шевцова, Kiev

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