On this day of 1922, the director Berezil, the experimental theater of Ukrainian modernism, was founded by the director Les Kurbas.
The theater was born from the theater troupes of the Young Theater and Kiidramte (Kiev Drama Theater), also founded by Les Kurbas. The name of the theater comes from the Ukrainian name of the first month of spring – “birch”. Until 1926, the theater operated in various premises in Kiev (on Khreshchatyk No. 29, in the premises of the current theaters Lesya Ukrainka and Summertime. Photo: UkrinformIvana Franko), and in 1926 it was transferred to Kharkov. Kurbas managed to do an almost unrealistic thing – in extremely poor conditions, since the country was in post-war devastation, to organize a huge organization in which hundreds of young romantics worked almost free of charge – actors, directors, composers , stage technicians, scenographers, artists. All were students or simply supporters of Kurbas. A total of 6 Berezol workshops were run. In the 1920s and 1930s, the Kurbasov Berezil was something much bigger for Ukraine than an ordinary theater. It was not only an art center, but also an experimental-experimental, cultural and social center of the whole Ukrainian cultural movement of the time. In the 15 years of his active work, Kurbas has been so successful that centuries have taken for other nations, and more than a generation of artists has been involved. First, he Europeanized Ukrainian theater, diverting it from an exclusively ethnographic direction towards the art of world theater, and second, he began to stage a new Ukrainian drama – plays by Nikolai Kulish, Michael Yogansen, Nikolay Khvylovy. In addition, Kurbas has raised a galaxy of new Ukrainian actors, including Joseph Girnyak, Amvrosiy Buchma, Daniil Antonovich, Maryan Krushelnitsky, Ivan Maryanenko, Valentina Chistyakova, Les Serdyuk and many others, who were later called “nest chicks” Kurbasov “. In the famous famine of 1933, after the creation of Kulish’s play “Macklen Grasse”, Berezil was banned, renamed Théâtre Shevchenko and Les Kurbas, as “enemy of the people” and “bourgeois nationalist”, was arrested with many other artists. First, they were sent to the NKVD prison in Moscow, then for the construction of the Belomorkanal, and in November 1937, they shot him at Karelian Sandarmokh. Almost all “Berezolites” were subjected to repression by the Soviet authorities.
Events of the day:
On March 31, 1889, in Paris, the Eiffel Tower was officially opened, which served as an arch during the Universal Exhibition of 1889. The construction of the tower lasted two years and two months, and the construction cost approximately five million francs (the project paid off quickly – in a year and a half). Its weight was 7300 tonnes, its height 300 m. The tower was not finished when, in February 1887, the newspaper “Le Temps” published a “Protest against Monsieur Tour Eiffel”, signed by Charles Gounod, Guy de Maupassant, Alexander Dumas Jr., Ernest Messonier, Charles Garnier and d other prominent representatives of French culture. Of course, gentlemen with exquisite taste have condemned “this tragic street lamp”, “… this insignificant skeleton”, “this tall and thin pyramid of iron stairs, this gigantic clumsy skeleton, … a curious pipe of thin factory. ” Today, few imagine France and Paris without the Eiffel Tower. By the way, the tower is visited each year by more than 7 million tourists, making it the most visited tourist attraction in the world.
Birthdays of the day:
147 years since the birth of Mykola Mikhnovsky (1873-1924), Ukrainian public and political figure, lawyer, publicist. The ideologist of the independence of the State of Ukraine, the founder and the first ideologue of Ukrainian nationalism. Mikhnovsky was the first in the Dnieper to raise the question of the political independence of Ukraine, which has since been debated at length among the Ukrainian intelligentsia, thus becoming the antithesis of the dominant Drahoman concept. All his work was aimed at awakening the national conscience of the Ukrainians. Mikhnovsky programs 1900-1906. provided for the creation of an independent Ukrainian state: “a single, indivisible, independent, free and democratic Ukraine -” the workers “- from the Carpathians to the Caucasus.” This involved establishing a presidential republic, providing social guarantees to the general population, transferring land to peasant property, etc. stabilize the economic and political situation of the country, which was not accepted by the leadership of the UPR. In the last years of his life, Nikolai Mikhnovsky was seriously ill, first lived in the Poltava region, then went to Novorossiysk; with Denikin’s troops, he attempted to evacuate by sea, but was refused, citing the fact that he was “a famous and relentless enemy of Russia”. (The Whites did not differ from the Reds in their attitude towards the Ukrainians: for these and for others, there were only “Little Russians” who, of course, did not dare to dream of their own state , but they had to obey their “elder” brother in all). After that Mikhnovsky lived for two years in the village of Poltava in the Kuban. In 1924 he returned to Kiev, where the GPU was arrested, interrogated, but was soon released. At that time, the new Soviet government had controlled Ukraine for two years now. Mikhnovsky, who has devoted more than 30 years to the struggle for independence of Ukraine, was saddened to watch what was going on around. The new reality made him feel depressing. On May 3, 1924, he was found hanged in the garden. Many thought it was the GPU’s job, but the son of Vladimir Shemeta (a well-known public figure, it was in his garden that a tragedy occurred) recalled that his father had found the deceased in his pocket the following note: “I will die in death! I’m going to turn it over, and I’m going to turn it over, death is the same in brightness, like an order. Tell me about my tim, hto me pam’yat. Your Mikola. “Sergei Shemet (brother of Vladimir Shemet) about Mikhnovsky said the following:” It was a big heart. Such a fire of love for Ukraine was burning inside him, in another country, it would have lit millions of hearts with the desire for a patriotic achievement, and among our intelligentsia only a few were lit by this fire. Its greatest merit was to provide great creative scope to Ukrainian national feelings. It kindled a little love for songs and embroidery in the flame of great love for Ukraine. “
77 years since the birth of Christopher Walken (1943), an American actor, one of the most active Hollywood actors of his generation. Throughout his career, the actor has appeared in over 100 films. In general, the films with his participation have raised more than $ 1.8 billion at the American box office. Christopher Walken almost never refuses the roles offered to him, considering each one as a new experience. He mainly plays supporting roles, but thanks to their characteristic appearance and their acting skills, they never go unnoticed – especially since the role of Walken is half crazy characters, sadists and psychopaths. He played in the movies “Annie Hall”, “Dead Zone”, “Deer Hunters” (1978, “Oscar” for the supporting role), “King of New York”, “McBain”, “Batman Returns”, “Single Hero “”, “True Love”, “Prophecy”, “Sleepy Hollow”, “Catch Me If You Can” (2003, BAFTA Award), etc.
74 years since the birth of Alexey Logvinenko (1946-2016), famous Ukrainian translator from German and English. Thanks to Alexey Logvinenko, Ukrainians were able to read the works of Heinrich Belle and Hermann Hesse, Friedrich Durrenmatt and Franz Kafka, Elias Canetti and Robert Musil, Gunter Grass, Max Frisch, Jerome David Salinger, Walter Scott, Herbert Wells and many others very famous works, writers. His translation heritage consists of more than 40 novels and short stories. Aleksey Logvinenko is from Cherkasy. Graduated from the Faculty of Foreign Languages of the University. T. Shevchenko. He worked in different publishing houses, the editors of the review “Universe”. In 1993-1998, he was one of the founders and executive director of the publishing house Osnovy. The master’s last major translation work was the epic novel by Hermann Broch “La mort de Virgile”. Alexey Logvinenko died in early January of this year, having lived several months before his 70th birthday. He is the winner of the Literary Prize named after Nikolai Lukas (1993), the winner of a literary prize from the Office of the Federal Chancellor of the Republic of Austria (2003), the winner of the Maxim Rylsky Prize for highly artistic translations of works by ‘foreign authors (2006).
293 years since the death of Isaac Newton (1643-1727), English physicist and mathematician, one of the founders of modern science, member of the Royal Society of London and its president (1703). He formulated the basic laws of classical mechanics, discovered the law of universal gravitation, the law of the decay of white light into monochromatic components, and developed (independently of Leibniz) differential and integral calculus. The pinnacle of Newton’s scientific work is his book “Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy” (1687), which summarizes the research of his and his predecessors in the fields of astronomy and physics. As Newton’s secretary recalled, some scholars, after receiving a copy of the “Beginnings” and leafing through its pages, regrettably noticed that it took at least seven years to learn in order to understand something in this book. The importance of Newtonian discoveries for the future development of science is hard to imagine. According to Albert Einstein, “Newton was the first to try to formulate elementary laws which determine the course of time of a large class of processes in nature with a high degree of completeness and precision.” Another well-known physicist remarked that “… Newton made physics think in his own way,” classically “, as we say now … We can say that the whole imprint of physics had an individual imprint of his thought; without Newton, science would have developed differently. But there was in the life of the great scientist who devoted his whole life to science, an interesting episode linked to political activity. In 1688, after the coming to power of William of Orange in England, a parliament was elected, of which Newton became a deputy. Some Newtonian biographers consider parliamentary activity to be a random episode, citing the fact that he never spoke publicly at parliamentary meetings. There’s a joke that Newton’s only speech was to call on the minister: “Close the window – it’s blowing.” An exceptional scientist died at the age of 85. By order of the king, he was solemnly buried in Westminster Abbey.
According to the materials: ukrinform.ru